Caries is the destruction of hard tooth tissues caused by bacteria living in the oral cavity. They create plaque, which causes the disease. In the process of their vital activity, bacteria produce organic acids, which first destroy tooth enamel. After that, they begin to erode the underlying dentin. As a result, a carious cavity is formed, which is filled with soft products of decay of dental tissue and a huge number of bacteria.
Caries treatment is reduced to the removal of areas of the tooth that have been affected by the disease. This is done using a drilling machine. Then the shape of the tooth is restored with help of filling materials. Treatment depends on the location of the disease and the depth of its penetration into the tooth tissue.
Classification of caries
According to the depth of penetration, the disease is divided into:
- caries in the stage of spots. Matte spots appear on the enamel surface. Gradually, their color becomes darker, but visible damage is not there yet;
- superficial caries. The enamel is demineralized, but dentin is not destroyed yet;
- medium caries. At this stage, dentin is already affected;
- deep caries. The entire dentin layer is destructed and pulp inflammation may begin.
The ailment is also classified according to the type of tissue affected:
- enamel caries;
- dentin caries;
- tooth root caries.
According to the degree of localization:
- Cervical caries – the focus is near the gums;
- Fissure caries – this type appears in natural fissures on the surface of the tooth;
- Caries between teeth, it is also called proximal – it most often affects the lateral teeth.
Treatment of caries
Caries treatment is carried out with the obligatory use of a drilling machine for cutting out the affected tissues. The resulting cavity is treated with disinfectants. After that, the shape of the tooth is restored with the use of filling material.
The use of a cofferdam is a must at the Denta Vita clinic. This is our gold standard in the treatment of defects of any etiology, which guarantees the durability of the restoration. Our restoration is a little more expensive, but it is worth investing in the health of your smile. We guarantee that our restorations will last at least 10 years. We can tell you this for sure.
It is extremely important to visit the dental clinic to receive treatment on time. Because of fear of the dentist’s drill, patients postpone their visit to the doctor until the pain is completely impossible to endure.
But one should know that medicine has advances a lot, and now the treatment of caries is carried out without pain. Modern medications are used for anesthesia. For example, ultracaine or ubistezine make dental intervention painless. Depending on how much medication is injected, the anesthesia will last from 40 minutes to 2-3 hours.
The price for caries treatment varies within small limits and is quite affordable.
The only painful sensation the patient feels is the insertion of the needle into the gum tissue and the release of the medication.
And in the case of superficial carious destruction, the dentist does not even need a drilling machine. In this case, the following methods are used:
- infiltration — a method that is used after wearing braces or in the stage of spot. It is removed by the method of chemical-mechanical treatment;
- air-abrasive processing. The cavity is exposed to an air flow with abrasive particles. As a result, tissue particles affected by destruction are dislodged, and the healthy ones remain in place;
- ozone therapy. The harmful bacteria are exposed to ozone, remineralization occurs. All this is done without anesthesia and drilling;
- laser treatment. This does not heat up the tissues. The technique is suitable for pregnant women, children and patients with increased sensitivity to vibration.
When treating deep caries, the algorithm is as follows:
- the diseased tooth is X-rayed to examine the depth of tissue damage;
- isolation of the tooth with a latex scarf – cofferdam;
- “cutting out” of diseased dentin, giving the hole the correct shape;
- antiseptic treatment;
- drying of the cavity;
- a calcium pad is placed and a temporary filling is placed on top. This is to check that the disease has not developed into pulpitis. On the next visit, if the tooth does not cause discomfort, a permanent filling is installed;
- the color of the filling is selected if it was caries of the front teeth;
- grinding and polishing.
Although the treatment is painless, it is best to observe caries prevention measures.